IN SPITE OF GREAT ADVANCES IN FORMAL METHOD IN SOCIAL SCIENCE, MUCH OF THE UNDERSTANDING OF PERSISTING AND GENERAL RELATIONSHIPS DEPENDS UPON A GRASP THAT IS TOTALLY INDEPENDENT OF SOME FORMAL METHOD. IN ADVANCING SOCIAL SCIENCE, WE INVENT AND PRACTICE TECHNIQUE AND CULTIVATE A HUMANISTIC ART. (Robert Redfield)

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TRIBES OF INDIA (Video Playlist) ETHNOGRAPHIC FILMS BY SATHYA MOHAN

Showing posts with label Biology. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Biology. Show all posts

Thursday, February 16, 2017

The Era Of Human-Animal Hybrid Chimeras Has Begun

Human-animal mutant creatures make for great material for science fiction writers, but we aren’t supposed to be creating them in the real world. In so many ways, the technological advancements that we have made as a society are outpacing our ability to handle those advancements, and this field is certainly a glaring example of that reality. Just because we can create human-animal hybrid chimeras does not mean that we should. Genetic modification is a particularly dangerous science, because we are literally tinkering with the future of our planet. And when it comes to humans and animals, those are two things that definitely should not mix. Unfortunately, they are being mixed, and this could have enormous implications as our society plunges into a very uncertain future.

During all of the chaos surrounding the 2016 presidential election, a stunning announcement by the National Institutes of Health went unnoticed by almost everyone. The following comes from a Huffington Post article entitled “The Island of Dr. Moreau For Real“…

In August 2016, the National Institutes of Health announced that it was lifting its ban on research that introduces stem cells from humans into animal embryos. Stem cells have the ability to evolve into any human cell and can grow into any human tissue. The goal of this type of research is to grow human tissues and eventually human replacement organs in animals. What an innovative way to improve upon transplantation medicine! But to realize this potential, we would create an organism that is part animal and part human! These hybrids are the stuff of ancient mythology. These mixtures of different animals are called chimeras after the mythical ancient Greek creature that was part lion, snake and goat. One goal of today’s research is to produce tissues and organs for experimentation that will improve our understanding of human disease. An alternative and longer term goal would be to produce organs directly for human transplantation. Imagine an infinite source of human organs – one wears out and you produce a new one as a replacement.

When human stem cells are introduced into an animal embryo, that creature becomes part human.

So does a part-human creature have rights?

If so, how do those rights differ from those of a full human?

These are the kinds of questions that ethicists are starting to wrestle with.

The thought of creating human-animal hybrids just for the purpose of growing organs which will be used for medical transplants is beyond disturbing. But this is what our scientists actually intend to do.

And just this week, the National Academies of Sciences and Medicine has released a brand new report that endorses the genetic modification of humans. The following comes from a Gizmodo article

Today, the National Academies of Sciences and Medicine released a major new report and recommendations to ensure any such research done stateside in the future is performed responsibly and ethically.

The implicit message is that whether we like it or not, a future of gene-edited humans is on its way.

Messing around with the genetic material of humans means that you are literally messing around with the future of the human race.

And once this genetic material starts being passed from generation to generation, it will literally be impossible to put the genie back into the bottle ever again.

Fortunately, there are some experts that are extremely alarmed by this new report

“The recommendations and conclusions of this report are unsettling and disappointing,” said Marcy Darnovsky, PhD, Executive Director of the Center for Genetics and Society. “Although they’re couched in apparently cautionary language, they actually constitute a green light for proceeding with efforts to modify the human germline — that is, to engineer the genes and traits that are passed on to future children and generations.”

Hopefully the scientific community will listen to people like Dr. Darnovsky before things get wildly out of control.

There are some scientists out there that actually want to “enhance” humans by introducing genetic material from animals. The theory is that introducing genetic material from animals could give us “super sight” or “super strength” or other extraordinary powers. This is the kind of thing that researchers such as Steve Quayle and Tom Horn have been warning about for years. In the future we could literally have a creature that is 60 percent human and 40 percent bear for example. How would we treat such a creature?

And as such creatures became more numerous, how would they treat us?

If you think that such a thing could never happen, just consider ten examples of creatures that are already being created by science…











How human does a creature have to be before it has a human soul?

Somebody better start asking questions like this, because we are “playing god” and we are tinkering with things that we do not fully understand.

We have already gone way too far, but scientists all over the globe continue to press on even farther. Even if we were to completely ban this kind of “research” in the United States, it would still progress in other industrialized nations all over the planet.

The genetic modification of humans and animals is part of a larger trend that we are currently witnessing. In the scientific community, there is a tremendous amount of excitement about the fact that humans can finally “take control of their own evolution”. There are many scientists that believe that we can use various forms of technology to give ourselves superhuman powers and radically extend our lifespans. And as technology continues to increase at an exponential rate, these scientists believe that we will be able to ultimately create a “post-human society” where all sickness, disease, poverty and war are eradicated.

So they aren’t concerned about the potential dangers of these new technologies because they believe that we are right on the verge of achieving immortality and transforming this planet into a technological utopia that will be perfect in every way.

In other words, they believe that humanity will no longer need “god” because we will be our own gods.

Unfortunately for all the rest of us, in their relentless pursuit of this very foolish dream they are racing toward genetic Armageddon, and they are opening up a Pandora’s box of horrors that they simply do not understand.


Monday, May 23, 2016

What Makes Us Human?


What is it that makes us human?

Is it that we love, that we fight?

That we laugh?

Cry?

Our curiosity?

The quest for discovery?

Driven by these questions, filmmaker and artist Yann Arthus-Bertrand spent three years collecting real-life stories from 2,000 women and men in 60 countries.

Working with a dedicated team of translators, journalists and cameramen, Yann captures deeply personal and emotional accounts of topics that unite us all; struggles with poverty, war, homophobia, and the future of our planet mixed with moments of love and happiness.




September 11, 2015

Friday, July 24, 2015

This Rescued Lab Chimp’s Reaction To Seeing The Sky For The First Time Will Bring You To Tears


All across the United States, thousands of animals live in cages for lab testing. Their entire lives are spent in captivity and they’re used for research purposes. They never get to go outside, they never get to interact with other animals, and nothing about their lives is natural. You can definitely make the argument that medical testing on animals has been beneficial to mankind, but it is still an extremely sad way for any animal to spend its life.

Thankfully, the Humane Society of the United States is doing everything it can to give these animals a better life. As far as chimpanzees go, The Humane Society is actively rescuing lab chimps and giving them a natural habitat to climb trees and engage with other chimps.

The chimps you’ll see in the video below are part of a massive chimp retirement. Over 100 chimps were released into a sanctuary. since they’ve been kept in captivity for most of their lives, they can never be released back into the wild, especially since most of them are over 50 years old. However, the sanctuary is the next best place for a chimp to live out their lives in peace.

Besides being able to play outside for the first time, this was also the first time many of the chimps are getting to interact with each other with out cages separating them. For the rest of their lives, these chimps will be able to socialize and explore a natural habitat.

Watch the chimps’ retirement, and don’t forget to SHARE this incredible moment with your family and friends!

If you want to learn more about the Humane Society and how they’re helping animals all over the world, check out their website website and watch more of their videos on their YouTube channel!

Monday, July 13, 2015

We are the Aliens

Clouds of alien life forms are sweeping through outer space and infecting planets with life. The idea that life on Earth came from another planet has been around as a modern scientific theory since the 1960s when it was proposed by Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe. At the time they were ridiculed for their idea -- known as panspermia. But now, with growing evidence, it's back in vogue and even being studied by NASA.

Wednesday, June 3, 2015

The Hidden Truth About Human Origins and History

Forbidden Archeology

The Hidden Truth About Human Origins & History - Michael Cremo.

Cremo states that the book has "over 900 pages of well-documented evidence suggesting that modern man did not evolve from ape man, but instead has co-existed with apes for millions of years!",and that the scientific establishment has suppressed the fossil evidence of extreme human antiquity. Cremo identifies as a "Vedic archeologist", since he believes his findings support the story of humanity described in the Vedas. Cremo's work has garnered interest from Hindu creationists, paranormalists and theosophists. He says a knowledge filter (confirmation bias) is the cause of this suppression. The Hidden Truth About Human Origins & History - Michael Cremo Forbidden Archeology.

The claim is that humans have lived on the earth for millions of years and that the scientific establishment has suppressed the fossil evidence of extreme human antiquity. Much of the material used and many of the quotes given are taken from the end of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th. As well relying on older more unreliable scientific work, the authors make arguments based on the Veda. In contrast to the Christianity-based creation Science movement, this book's style of creationism is based on steady state type of belief which is viewed as being compatible with the Vedas, namely that humans have existed in their current state for hundreds of millions of years.

Friday, April 6, 2012

THRIVE: What On Earth Will It Take?

More info at: http://www.thrivemovement.com/
Own THRIVE on DVD: http://www.thrivemovement.com/store
THRIVE is an unconventional documentary that lifts the veil on what's REALLY going on in our world by following the money upstream -- uncovering the global consolidation of power in nearly every aspect of our lives. Weaving together breakthroughs in science, consciousness and activism, THRIVE offers real solutions, empowering us with unprecedented and bold strategies for reclaiming our lives and our future.

Saturday, December 17, 2011

Alien Planet

Storyline: The CGI or computer animated drama/documentary takes place on Darwin IV, a planet 6.5 light years from earth, with 2 suns and 60% of Earth's gravity. Having identified Darwin as a world that could support life, Earth sends a pilot mission consisting of the Mothership Von Braun and three probes: Balboa, Da Vinci, and Newton. This robotic fleet is responsible for finding and assessing any life forms on Darwin IV. Initially, the expectation is to find microscopic life, but the probes soon find themselves in the middle of a developed ecosystem teeming with diversity of life of all sizes. The drama on Darwin IV is motivated by real science missions, such as the NASA Origins Program and the NASA / JPL Planet-Finder Mission, as well as the European Space Agency's Darwin Project. "Alien Planet " is a cosmic expedition along side Stephen Hawking, Michio Kaku, Jack Horner, Craig Venter, and George Lucas...

Thursday, November 17, 2011

The Secret Life of the Brain

by nosynasser
September 18, 2011

The Secret Life of the Brain, a David Grubin Production, reveals the fascinating processes involved in brain development across a lifetime.

The five-part series, informs viewers of exciting information in the brain sciences, introduces the foremost researchers in the field, and utilizes dynamic visual imagery and compelling human stories to help a general audience understand otherwise difficult scientific concepts.

A startling new map of the human brain has emerged during the past decade of neuroscience research, contradicting much of what was previously believed.

This series tells stories through a mix of personal histories, expert commentary, and animation.

1) The Baby’s Brain - Wider than the Sky

A baby’s brain is a mystery whose secrets scientists are just beginning to unravel. The mystery begins in the womb - only four weeks into gestation the first brain cells, the neurons, are already forming at an astonishing rate: 250,000 every minute.

2) The Child’s Brain - Syllable from Sound

A child’s brain is a magnificent engine for learning. A child learns to crawl, then walk, run and explore. A child learns to reason, to pay attention, to remember, but nowhere is learning more dramatic than in the way a child learns language. As children, we acquire language - the hallmark of being human.

3)The Teenage Brain - A World of Their Own

When examining the adolescent brain we find mystery, complexity, frustration, and inspiration. As the brain begins teeming with hormones, the prefrontal cortex, the center of reasoning and impulse control, is still a work in progress. For the first time, scientists can offer an explanation for what parents already know - adolescence is a time of roiling emotions, and poor judgment.

4)The Adult Brain - To Think by Feeling

The adult brain is the apotheosis of the human intellect, but what of emotion? The study of emotion was once relegated to the backwaters of neuroscience, a testament to the popular conception that what we feel exists outside our brains, acting only to intrude on normal thought. The science has changed: Emotion is now considered integral to our over-all mental health.

5)The Aging Brain - Through Many Lives

At the age of 95, Stanley Kunitz was named poet laureate of the United States. Still writing new poems, still reading to live audiences, he stands as an inspiring example of the brain’s ability to stay vital in the final years of our lives. The latest discoveries in neuroscience present a new view of how the brain ages. Overturning decades of dogma, scientists recently discovered that even into our seventies, our brains continue producing new neurons.
PART-1 The Baby’s Brain - Wider than the Sky
PART-2 The Child’s Brain - Syllable from Sound
PART-3 The Teenage Brain - A World of Their Own
PART-4 The Adult Brain - To Think by Feeling
PART-5 The Aging Brain - Through Many Lives

Tuesday, May 31, 2011

Greatest Evolution Discoveries


1. K-T Asteroid Theory of Dinosaur Extinction (1980)
Walter Alvarez postulates that high levels of iridium found in rock core samples around the world provide evidence that an asteroid impact caused the extinction of dinosaurs. Iridium, a common mineral found in asteroids, was discovered in the clay layer at what is known as the K-T boundary. This layer, at 65 million years, lies between the rocks of the Cretaceous and the Tertiary periods and coincides with the mass extinction of dinosaurs.
2. First Dinosaur Fossils Identified (1820s -- 1840s)
In 1822, geologist William Buckland uncovers some really big teeth in England. At the time, there is no word to describe his finds. Twenty years later, in 1842, Sir Richard Owen comes up with the word "dinosaur" to describe several spectacular creatures whose fossils are discovered across England. Megalosaurus is the first dinosaur ever named.
3. Potential for Life Created (1953)
Graduate student Stanley Miller, combining the ideas of other scientists, reproduces the early atmosphere of Earth by creating a chamber containing only hydrogen, water, methane and ammonia. He boils the water and exposes the elements to an electric discharge like lightning, simulating Earth's early processes. After a week, Miller finds organic compounds have formed, including some amino acids, the "building blocks of life."
4. New Life-forms Discovered Around Hydrothermal Vents (1977)
Bob Ballard and the crew of the submersible Alvin find amazing new life-forms living completely independent of the sun's energy around deep-sea, hydrothermal vents. These undersea geysers form along volcanic mid-ocean ridges, where cold seawater penetrates deep into cracks in the Earth's crust. Heated water rises back out and the scalding vent water mixes with cold ocean-bottom seawater, creating a rising plume of warm, black fluid filled with mineral particles. The chemicals support a thriving ecosystem on the ocean floor.
5. The Burgess Shale (1909)
Charles Walcott exposes a mother lode of Cambrian fossils high in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, providing a glimpse of what life was like on Earth more than 500 million years ago. He collects more than 65,000 specimens and classifies each, discovering that the fossils are ancestors of living animals.
6. Classification of Species (1735)
Carl Linnaeus, considered the "father of taxonomy," develops a system for naming, ranking and classifying all forms of life that is still in use today (although many changes have been made). The Linnaean system, based on shared physical characteristics, uses a hierarchy starting with kingdoms divided into classes, then into orders, families, genera and species.
7. Theory of Natural Selection (1858)
Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, in which he challenges contemporary beliefs about the creation of life on Earth. Darwin had served as an unpaid naturalist on the HMS Beagle, which set out on a five-year scientific expedition to the Pacific coast of South America in early 1832. The data he collected on the expedition, especially specimens from the Galapagos Islands, was the inspiration for his theories on evolution by the mechanism of natural selection. His work has been at the center of controversy ever since it was published.
8. Australopithecus Afarensis or "Lucy" (1974)
Donald Johanson discovers the partial skeleton of a 3.2 million-year-old female hominid in Ethiopia. Johnson dubs his find "Lucy" after the Beatles' song Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds, which was playing on the radio as the team celebrated the find.
9. Laetoli Footprints (1978)
A team led by Mary Leaky discovers fossilized Australopithecus footprints in Laetoli, Tanzania. The footprints, dated to 3.5 million years ago, were formed when two individuals walked over wet volcanic ash that had hardened like cement. These human ancestors had perfect, two-footed strides, indicating that the hominids walked upright.
10. Toumai skull (2002)
Michel Brunet unearths the oldest hominid fossil to date in the desert of the central African nation of Chad. The fragments of this 6 to 7 million-year-old skull, with characteristics resembling humans, were found outside eastern and southern Africa, suggesting human evolution may have been taking place all across the continent.

Thursday, October 28, 2010

Life on Mars, The Smoking Gun, Herd Life Forms

By James Watson
Oct 3, 2010

They are called “dunes” by NASA, but tend to be seen in packs and have characteristics unlike any dunes I have ever seen.  Doubtless if NASA were to image a flock of sheep, they would call them dunes as well, in order to stay within the  The  Brookings Report findings.  The Brookings Report states that Earth’s civilization is too fragile to accept any inference of intelligent life outside of our planet, thus NASA and other agencies around the world work very hard to ensure images by probe cameras and telescopes show dull, dead arid, scenes.
The images used in this document are from NASA and taken using NASA Mars orbital cameras. They may be easily found by entering “Mars Images” using search engines such as Google.
The images in this document may superficially resemble dunes, but when one examines successive images taken over time, one notes characteristics common to herd life forms:
  • They are not seen alone
  • They are in herds or pack
  • They congregate in large masses
  • They have appendages, markings and bundles of fibers.
Further, the life forms have dark colored appendages that can be seen sticking up that resemble trees, bushes or are tubular and may trail behind the life forms.
The life forms are in such great numbers on the surface of Mars, that NASA by necessity hides them by using graphic tools in lightening, darkening, changing color, mid-tone and shadow, and eroding/filtering the image quality in various ways to make them opaque or flatten image characteristics to eliminate detail, and make them look like dune-like bulges of darkness, or innocuous surface features as illustrated in the group of five NASA tampered images below:


Let’s have a look at herd life forms.  First of all there are two types that seem to be more numerous than the others. One type is shown below. They seem to be moving on appendages/legs that keep the body away from the surface of the ground, indicated by slight shadowing under the life forms:


  The next series of images are of a far more numerous life form, and unlike any land-based form of life we have on Earth.  This image suggests the life forms are either gathering to form a massive colony or are migrating from the colony. Note the dark appendages at the top of many of the life forms and the suggestion of a membranous gelatinous body:



The next image shows the herd on the move. The means of locomotion is open to conjecture. The life forms appear to be able to change their overall shape as if they are membranous.  One curious item in the next three images can be seen near the bottom right, where one life form appears to be extending a tubular appendage to another. Rather strange behaviour for a “dune”:



In a closer look at that section of the image, the light and shading of the appendage suggests a tubular composition and is not trailing on the ground, but is extending above the ground and inside the other life form on an angle. It is difficult to tell if the left life form is extending it to the one on the right, or vice versa:
 


A still closer view shows more detail:

 


The next image shows heavy NASA image tampering. All detail has been removed, the images of the life form are dark, flattened and devoid of surface detail.  They are not crossing the crater, but seem to be gathering at exactly the same distance from the rim of the crater to inside the crater. It suggests life forms gathered for nourishment, much like animals on Earth drinking at a water hole. If one zooms the original image, bundles of fibers extend from the life form into the crater. The water hole analogy is quite apt:

The next image is of two life forms. Again, the image shows heavy NASA tampering eliminating useful detail. There are dark colored appendages at the apex of the life forms, and a flexible tubular appendage on the rear left of each life form. The base of the appendage may denote a muscular base. The inside of the back arched section of the life form may suggest various types of tissue and source of locomotion.


 
In presenting these NASA Mars Orbital Camera images, I have endeavored to limit speculation to a minimum.  My aim is to present the fact that there is indeed life on Mars of a type that is very different from Earth.  For NASA, the best way to hide something is in plain sight, and historically, it has worked well, If these NASA images are any indication,
Mars is an extremely interesting biosphere, but clearly very few scientists are privy to the untampered images.  The only way we can see what is truly there is to catch their mistakes.

Wednesday, September 22, 2010

Sealand skull photos released

Columnist: Anton Spangenberg

An alien survivor from a prehistoric saucer crash? An unfortunate time traveler from the future? A tradesman from a parallel universe? A hitherto undiscovered species? Or a mere freak deformity of a human being? Nobody knows for sure, but no matter the explanation, the Sealand Skull has potential to change the view of the world we live in.

The July 2007 discovery of the skull in Olstykke on the Danish island Sealand did however not make headlines and remained largely ignored by science until 2010. The researchers who in 2008 examined the skull at the Veterinarian High School in Copenhagen merely concluded that “Although resembling a mammal, certain features make it impossible to fit the animal into Linnaean taxonomy”.

Dug up during the replacement of old sewer pipes, the finder at first believed that it was some horse bone, as the house formerly belonged to a horse butcher, and the garden is full of remains. It was not until refilling the trench that he noticed its humanoid shape. Later excavations at the site have not uncovered further remains with connection to the creature, only identifiable animal bones, stone axes and other Neolithic tools which are common to the area. The fact that the skull was found among Neolithic remains does however, not reveal its age. Carbon 14 dating at the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen has shown that the creature lived between 1200 and 1280 AD. Furthermore, the skull was found above the old pipes, whose age suggests that it wasn’t buried until after 1900. Also the absence of other skeleton parts of the creature, together with the skull’s state of preservation, has led the scientists to suspect that it has not been buried for long, probably only a couple of decades.

Perhaps to conceal the secret behind its existence someone stored it for ages and later deliberately buried it. It is interesting to note that residents in Olstykke and nearby villages have from former times told about a local member of l’Ordre Lux Pégasos (the Order of Pegasus’ Light), whom accordingly on behalf of the order protected various items – among them a mysterious cranium and several devices made of extraordinary light, albeit unbreakable metal or ceramics. The skull is said to have originated from the Balkans, but it has also been stored in Paris, France, and in Munich, Germany, before arriving in Denmark.

If the story holds true, it is possible that further research may lead to the whereabouts of alien artefacts. It is plausible that l’Ordre Lux Pégasos still keeps objects as well as insights into their origin and purpose. Little is known about the order however, except that it was established around 1350 and throughout its existence has counted influential poets and authors among its members. Among the prominent initiated were Giovanni Boccaccio, William Shakespeare, Réne Descartes, Thomas Jefferson, Edward Bulwer-Lytton, Ambrose Bierce, Karin Boye, H.G. Wells, Julio Cortázar, Joseph Heller, Octavia Butler, Aleksandr Solsjenitsyn and Ahmed al-Baghdadi. One can wonder why the task of preserving alien artefacts and knowledge fell upon an order solely consisting of writers, but the very name of the order does hint at one or more guests from the Pegasus constellation, who for some time lived among us and brought us vast knowledges and inspiration. The secrecy of the order however suggests that humanity is not yet ready to share the Pegasian knowledge.

The Sealand Skull is about one and a half times larger than a male Homo sapiens cranium. Especially the eye sockets contribute to its size. Its smooth surface reveals that the creature was adapted to cold climate, and its relative eye size that it was either a night creature, lived underground or on a planet orbiting a remote or dim star, probably an orange or red dwarf. It is noted that the star 51 Pegasi in the Pegasus constellation was the first Sun-like star known to have a planet. Planets orbiting the Pegasus star HR 8799 were the first to be directly imaged, and spectroscopic analysis of HD 209458 b, another planet in the constellation, has provided the first evidence of atmospheric water vapor beyond our solar system.

Monday, August 16, 2010

Our Planetary Companions Are Very Like Us

Darwin's theory sparked a revolution in how we look at ourselves and our world. A key contention is that human and animal intelligence vary in degree, rather than in kind. Anyone who lives with a cat, a dog or some other kind of animal must surely be convinced that animals are conscious, and no-one can have any doubts that our closest relative, the great apes, are conscious. Canadian journalist Dan Falk looks at what consciousness means in this context.
Dan Falk: I visited the Toronto Zoo last summer soon after they opened their new gorilla rain forest exhibit. The main attraction is a group of 8 western lowland gorillas including a hefty male named Charles who weighs in at nearly 200 kgs. Of course the zoo is full of wonderful creatures from around the world but the apes and chimps seem to hold a special appeal and I think that’s because they remind us so much of ourselves. After all, they are our closest living relatives in the animal kingdom.

When you watch the younger apes running and jumping, climbing trees and swinging on ropes you can’t help thinking how similar they are to children. When you look at their faces you see expressions that seem to match our facial expressions. Behind all of those similarities in behaviour is there also a similarity of mind? How close is the mind of an animal to the mind of a human being? With humans we like to use the word consciousness to describe our complex mental world. Now not everyone agrees on exactly how to define consciousness but most scientists would agree that it goes beyond just responding to our environment, that it involves more than just acting by instinct on what we take in with our senses.

We also have memories and emotions, we can form images in our minds, we can even form abstract concepts and communicate them using language - but can animals do some of those things? What degree of consciousness do they have? John Sorrell is a philosopher at the University of California in Berkeley, he’s written several influential books on the science of consciousness. He says the evidence for animal consciousness is all around us.

John Sorrell: There’s always some philosopher who says that animals can’t have consciousness. Well he hasn’t met my dog Ludwig. I mean, there just isn’t any doubt that Ludwig is conscious. Not just because he behaves in a conscious kind of way, but because I can see that his behaviour is connected to a machinery that’s relatively like mine: those are his eyes, that’s his ears, that’s his nose.
So the reason I’m so confident that some animals at least have consciousness is not just because they have similar behaviour but because I can see they’ve got a relevantly similar causal mechanism. Now, how far down the phylogentic scale does it go? We don’t know. I don’t think it’s useful right now to worry about are snails conscious, we just don’t know enough. But there isn’t any doubt that primates are conscious, go to any zoo. 

Tuesday, May 11, 2010

Neanderthal Gene Found in Human DNA of People Living Out of Africa

'They have been extinct for 30,000 years, but a small part of the Neanderthals lives on in the DNA of every person with ancestors outside Africa. The genetic code of Neanderthal Man has revealed that Homo sapiens mated with our closest evolutionary relatives soon after migrating out of Africa, leaving traces that can still be detected in human DNA.'