Tuesday, June 4, 2024


Did you hear about this?

Download these amazing films – FOR FREE!

The brilliant documentaries by Stop World Control show what is really going on in our world and reveal what "the powers that be" are trying to hide from humanity.

Download these films today and post them anywhere you want, to inform the people of our world, and prevent the criminal agenda of corrupt rulers.

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World leaders are pushing for the replacement of the human race with cyborgs and humanoid robots which will be controlled by AI. They are also implementing a surveillance system that will record everything you think, feel and dream.




Virtually everything on earth is owned by one and the same corporation. This monopoly gives them the power to control governments, impose vaccine mandates and enslave humanity.




Discover how the military state of Israel was funded and founded by the heads of global satanism, with the purpose of becoming the center for their agenda of world domination.




A former executive director of the United Nations explains that the UN is controlled by criminals who use it to enrich themselves and enslave humanity.




Dr. Carrie Madej reveals how Big Tech collaborates with Big Pharma to introduce technologies in new vaccines that alter our DNA and turn us into hybrids. The goal is to end humanity as we know it, and start the process of transhumanism: HUMAN 2.0.




Biophysicist Andreas Kalcker discovered a 100% effective cure for covid and virtually every other pathogen. It has saved the lives of millions worldwide, but is hidden from humanity by governments.




A virologist from the World Health Organization revealed on Dutch television that the WHO has a plan of 10 years of infectious diseases, between 2020 and 2030.




BUSTED contains leaked footage and whistleblower confessions that reveal how the criminal media, corrupt scientists and wicked governments strategically plan to deceive the public.




The world-renowned Physician of Presidents, and nominee for the Nobel Peace Prize, Dr. Vladimir Zelenko takes a BIG RISK by speaking out fearlessly about the devastating destruction the current vaccinations are causing worldwide.




Dr. Reiner Fuellmich and a worldwide network of lawyers has interviewed hundreds of experts from every field of science. They have undeniable evidence that pandemics are planned operations.




Many millions of unsuspecting people are being murdered in hospitals around the world, in return for big money. A nurse or physician can earn millions of dollars simply by accepting incentives to use lethal protocols. Listen to the horrifying testimonies of medical professionals, lawyers, undertakers and surviving patients who reveal what is going on in our hospitals. This is one of the greatest crimes in our modern day society. Please watch these videos and share them widely.





Funeral director John O’Looney observed how thousands of vulnerable people were murdered in care homes in order to start the covid pandemic in the United Kingdom. He was contacted by a government official who instructed him to label every natural death as covid. O’Looney also saw how the death rates suddenly exploded once vaccinations began. John O’Looney is connected with 45 other funeral directors who have told him they see the same things: mass murder by governments, re-labeling every death as covid, and massive death waves following the vaccinations.



Friday, February 9, 2024

An open book on our origins

Originally, much was known about our origins, but these were destroyed by the dark powers so that we were not allowed to know how, what and where our origins lie. Fortunately, in India, these traditional thoughts have been preserved as ‘Veda’ and passed on from one generation to the next through oral transmission. According to traditional Indian thought, ‘Veda’ is considered a self-evident and authoritative public scripture. However, not compiled by human authors. The word ‘Veda’ means ‘knowledge’ and is derived from the Sanskrit ‘vid’, meaning ‘to know’. It did not originate from a single literary work, but refers to a large body of literature, created over many centuries and handed down from generation to generation.

Destruction of literature from antiquity

Human history is based on loose fragments. Why do we know nothing more about our past and its many found artefacts? Over the centuries, much of the literature and artefacts have been deliberately destroyed to keep the people stupid and asleep.

Little remained after the destruction of the Egyptian library in the temple of Ptah in Memphis. Similarly, 200,000 precious works disappeared when the library of Pergamum in Asia Minor was destroyed. When the Romans razed the city of Carthage to the ground, they destroyed 500,000 books, then came Julius Caesar with his war against Egypt that resulted in the loss of the library in Alexandria that was considered the largest collection of books in antiquity.

Because of these tragedies, we now rely on loose fragments, random passages and meagre records. Our distant past has fallen into a vacuum that is randomly replenished with tablets, parchments, statues, paintings and all sorts of artefacts.

The history of this knowledge would look very different if the book collection of Alexandria still existed today. However, there is one bright spot: thousands of ancient writings have recently been found and secured in the Vatican library. Probably these books contain the missing facts of the past?

The origin of man on Earth is different from what is presented in the literature. Man originated from other planets in the universe. Studies of human DNA prove this claim.

Thus, the origin of life on Earth goes back much further in time than is commonly known. The first adventure began beyond the boundaries of this planet and runs through star kingdoms, galactic federations; extraterrestrials visited the then existing civilisations of Atlantis, Lemuria, Mu, Tartaria and other recently discovered civilisations.

The most important secret on this world concerns our origins, which have been hidden from us for centuries. Well-known theories about this, like neither the “theory of evolution” nor the “theory of creation” explain the true origin of the human individual.

Darwin’s fake theory of “survival of the fittest” does not explain how humans overcame the thousands of errors in human DNA structure, while it ignores the creation theory of an impressive number of ancient fossils and artefacts found all over the world. So there is clearly a need for a new reliable model about our origins.

Only recently has confusion arisen around these theories regarding the origin of modern humans, due to fossil discoveries indicating that Neanderthal, primitive humans, lived alongside Cro-Magnon humans, or modern humans, in what is now Israel. Oddly enough, these races did not interbreed with each other because Neanderthal and modern humans could not.

In terms of reproduction, they were incompatible; they were two completely different species. In fact, scientific research has shown that the remains of modern humans in prehistoric Israel are as much as 40,000 years older than the remains of Neanderthals. That alone makes the theory of ongoing evolution untenable.

This conclusion could solve the still “missing link” between primitive and modern humans, which apparently does not exist. So there have clearly been two completely different types of humans, and this requires a new model about the origin of mankind.

A growing number of archaeologists, theologians and historians dispute the ready-made answers offered by conventional science. However, these scientists do not give in easily, defending their ideas by fire and sword.

Equally intransigent and determined are those who declare that the earth is flat, continuing to defend their theories to the bitter end against their better judgement, despite growing evidence to the contrary.

Many of our planet’s mysteries are linked to artefacts many thousands of years older than reported. Such as, among others, the clay tablets found and translated, which describe the positions of the planets Venus and Saturn with their seven satellites. These could apparently be observed in ancient Babylon without telescopes?

One thing is clear; Humanity on Earth today is writing the final chapter on this with experience gained in a World of trials and penances.

Every incarnated soul on this Planet has its individual history through the millennia. There is not the slightest possibility that two stories are the same because they are not written in words, but through the feelings of each soul.

We are now writing the last lines of the last page of our own book of life. When the dot is put after the last sentence, comes the password that enables the reading of your origin story.

The frequency of your consciousness, will be the key that opens the door, giving access to this content. If that frequency is not there, your consciousness does not yet have access to your own experiences in the School of Souls.

Our returning extraterrestrial correspondent Vital Frosi, below, is helping humanity on Earth to prepare further.


Beloved ones!

Only those who are unaware of the Divine Plan are afraid. In fact, unaware is not even the right word, because every incarnated soul has kept all the information about who they are in their subconscious.

The veils of oblivion are part of the Divine Plan for this School of Souls. It enables souls to experience new lessons in each incarnation, as if they had never experienced anything similar in their previous lives.

This current incarnation is the last one under the veils here on this Planet of trials and reconciliations. You feel it even if no one tells you, because your soul knows. It has had access to the entire programme for the benefit of Earth and her humanity, from the beginning to the end of the Cycle of Duality.

Even before your first incarnation here, you have read this programme and had no trouble understanding it. You knew that you would have unlimited support and that completing this long path of life would depend solely on you. Your choices would determine which obstacles you had to face in each incarnation. It even seemed easy! And it is.

The apparent problem exists only because we have a limited consciousness in the Third Dimension with the soul in physical condition.

The Divine Plan for Earth and its humanity is so vast and diverse that our consciousness, still limited by the veils, not can understand it. But it would be enough for everyone to know, that this cannot be changed by anyone who has access to our planet.

For many thousands of years, the alien entities of the Non-Light have tried to confiscate control of our planet and its humanity. Even if you don’t remember, before you accepted the Terran experience, you knew that the Fallen Angels were still active in this quadrant of the Galaxy.

The purpose of these evil entities was to rule over ascending worlds and prevent these souls from ascending. We have already mentioned that all this represented the tireless interplanetary wars, especially in this Orion Arm, to which our Solar System belongs.

Even the powers that oppose the Light, however incomprehensible to a limited human mind, are also part of the Divine Plan. I mentioned this in a post here a few years ago.  Allowing the presence of these evil races on Earth would give them a chance to redeem themselves and return to the path to the Light.

So the presence of such entities on Earth also raised the level of their experience, despite it bringing more trials and tribulations for the souls incarnated here. Nothing is in vain! The Divine Plan makes infinite perspectives possible, but it never loses control of its flock. This is the guarantee that every soul received with their Earth Project.

Someone has already said, “Oh, why weren’t we told this before?” I can answer that here: because you always knew; you just can’t remember. This is also part of the Plan. As we are in our final experience in matter, at the end of the Cycle of Atonement Days and Trials, our consciousness gradually frees itself from the veils of forgetfulness, allowing those who awaken to remember and understand the Creator’s Plan.

Clearly, those who will not ascend do not need to restore their original consciousness, because they are not ready to end their journey for that. They will continue to learn in worlds still of trials and reconciliations, just as they have been here on Earth so far. All within the perfection of the Divine Plan.

Understanding the Divine Plan frees the incarnated soul from all fears, all traumas and all difficulties. Yes, that’s right! Freed, once the conscience understands that nothing and no one can change your own plan in any reincarnation. Otherwise, life in matter would become a lottery, where everyone’s fate depends on luck.

The Divine Plan allows each soul to use its free will to choose and set up their own project for the next incarnation in any situation, at any time times during incarnation, and in any period between lives, that is, even on the Astral Plane while dis-incarnating. This is also part of the Greater Plan. So we could say that you are the Divine Plan in miniature. You are that piece of the puzzle without which the whole is incomplete.

To summarise today’s topic, you need only two things: trust and doing your own part. If you trust, almost all difficulties will cease to exist. And if you do your part, your ascension is assured. Contrary to what we have been told for centuries, nothing and no one can stop individual ascension.

Nothing and no one can change the Divine Plan. Nothing and no one can change your own individual Incarnation Plan.

Remember that the Non-Light does not create anything. It only creates obstacles so that the Light cannot reach a certain point and so a shadow appears. And a shadow is simply the absence of Light. Illuminate your surroundings! Illuminate your path! Illuminate the path of those who walk beside you! Darkness cannot do anything against Light, because in Light darkness does not exist.

All Darkness can do is make you afraid, and even then, only if you let it.

Is the fear of darkness, which is common, not an everyday occurrence for many people. But, fear of Darkness has been instilled in mankind for centuries!

The threats they still try to impose on incarnate beings are nothing more than a futile attempt to delay their final departure from Earth.

No one but you can change your Individual Soul Plan, let alone the Divine Plan for humanity on Earth.

It’s all about Trust!

When many no longer fear the dark, the Darkness will no longer exist.

I am Vital Frosi and my mission is enlightenment!


This is your Final Wakeup Call!!!

Read and Spread

The depressing conclusion is that people that constitute the nations of Western Civilisation have degenerated into such indifference and stupidity that they have no possibility of survival. They sit mindlessly in front of TV absorbing their brainwashing and indoctrination. They can’t pay their rent, mortgage or car payments, but they pay endlessly for care of immigrant-invaders who are overwhelming their communities with material needs.

They are so stupid that they even don’t know how they are fleeced by their authorities!!!

There is no National Debt without same amount in National Credit

Every time debt is created, similarly a credit is created to the same amount.

As mathematically, debt and credit should always cancel each other out. There cannot e.g. 20 Trillion dollars of “National Debt” being created, without the existence of an equal 20 Trillion of “National Credit”. See below video for further explanation

Governments have generally been very careful and diligent to never build up balanced debt, in other words in the above example of $20 trillion in National Debt, the same amount is also available, or even more, in credit. After all, this money is built up on the people’s ledger side.

It’s time to start with accurate bookkeeping, zeroing out the “National Debt” against the “National Credit”. It should be a routine process akin to balancing a check book, but instead, it has been morphed into an excuse for fraud and theft on an unimaginable scale.

It is time that we the people wake up and begin to send home the majority of members of Parliament and Congress in dishonour, holding them responsible for their gross lack of oversight, accountability, honesty, and competence.

Most politicians have no idea how government should work or act within the framework they have set up. Nor, do they have a clear understanding of how government accounting should work, apart from knowing how to “misappropriate” money for any unauthorised or questionable purpose. They have no clue where the so-called money comes from, how it is created or whatever else is involved.

Think about;

Parliament or Congress, has the special task of holding the purse strings, which they have decidedly failed to do.

Remember: the Deep State’s main weapon against us is money and blackmail, which makes it vital to put an end to all central banks owned by the Rothschilds.

Thursday, October 26, 2023

History Of Human Civilizations

The following 11.5 Hrs. Full Documentary With Sound Is About Ancient Religions From Alpha To Stone Age To Omega To Modern Times To Infinity.

Everything we were taught about the Earth, History, Science, Space, Energy and our Civilization was a lie. This mind blowing documentary will shift your perspective of the world monumentally.


More History Of Human Civilizations Around 400,000 years ago, the first evidence of the Neanderthals. Their bodies were adapted to the cold environments of Europe and Western Asia. Their distinctive facial features were some of the most human-like ever seen. They are famous for their massive body weight and big facial hair. These prehistoric ancestors were made for the cold. Then came us; 300,000 years ago, the first Homo Sapiens roamed the earth. The Only surviving species of the Homo Genus. But how did Homo Sapiens rise into a global dominance through the mechanism of civilization?

Humanity Written History was preceded by its prehistory, beginning with the Palaeolithic Era ("Old Stone Age"), followed by the Neolithic Era ("New Stone Age"). The Neolithic saw the Agricultural Revolution begin, between 10,000 and 5000 BCE, in the Near East's Fertile Crescent. During this period, humans began the systematic husbandry of plants and animals. As agriculture advanced, most humans transitioned from a nomadic to a settled lifestyle as farmers in permanent settlements. The relative security and increased productivity provided by farming allowed communities to expand into increasingly larger units, fostered by advances in transportation.

Whether in prehistoric or historic times, people always needed to be near reliable sources of drinking water. Settlements developed as early as 4,000 BCE in Iran, in Mesopotamia, in the Indus River valley on the Indian subcontinent, on the banks of Egypt's Nile River, and along China's rivers. As farming developed, grain agriculture became more sophisticated and prompted a division of labour to store food between growing seasons. Labour divisions led to the rise of a leisured upper class and the development of cities, which provided the foundation for civilization. The growing complexity of human societies necessitated systems of accounting and writing. Hinduism developed in the late Bronze Age on the Indian subcontinent. The Axial Age witnessed the introduction of religions such as Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, and Jainism. Video Is not about Creationism vs. Evolution and Either dust or lightening started it all. video is more about world timeline history as place's and people's and land's and different kingdom's in time's.

With civilizations flourishing, ancient history ("Antiquity," including the Classical Age and Golden Age of India, up to about 500 CE) saw the rise and fall of empires. Post-classical history (the "Middle Ages," c. 500–1500 CE,) witnessed the rise of Christianity, the Islamic Golden Age (c. 750 CE – c. 1258 CE), and the Timurid and Italian Renaissances (from around 1300 CE). The mid-15th-century introduction of movable-type printing in Europe revolutionized communication and facilitated ever wider dissemination of information, hastening the end of the Middle Ages and ushering in the Scientific Revolution. The early modern period, sometimes referred to as the "European Age and Age of the Islamic Gunpowders", from about 1500 to 1800, included the Age of Discovery and the Age of Enlightenment. By the 18th century, the accumulation of knowledge and technology had reached a critical mass that brought about the Industrial Revolution and began the late modern period, which started around 1800 and has continued through the present.

This scheme of historical periodization (dividing history into Antiquity, Post-Classical, Early Modern, and Late Modern periods) was developed for, and applies best to, the history of the Old World, particularly Europe and the Mediterranean. Outside this region, including ancient China and ancient India, historical timelines unfolded differently. However, by the 18th century, due to extensive world trade and colonization, the histories of most civilizations had become substantially intertwined, a process known as globalization. In the last quarter-millennium, the rates of growth of population, knowledge, technology, communications, commerce, weapon destructiveness, and environmental degradation have greatly accelerated, creating unprecedented opportunities and perils that now confront the planet's human communities.

Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history between the use of the first stone tools by hominins c. 3.3 million years ago and the invention of writing systems. The use of symbols, marks, and images appears very early among humans, but the earliest known writing systems appeared c. 5000 years ago and it took thousands of years for writing systems to be widely adopted. In some human cultures, writing systems were not used until the nineteenth century and, in a few, are not even used until the present. The end of prehistory therefore came at very different dates in different places, and the term is less often used in discussing societies where prehistory ended relatively recently.

Ancient history is the aggregate of past events from the beginning of writing and recorded human history and extending as far as post-classical history. The phrase may be used either to refer to the period of time or the academic discipline.

The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with the Sumerian cuneiform script, with the oldest coherent texts from about 2600 BC. Ancient history covers all continents inhabited by humans in the period 3000 BC – AD 500.

The broad term "ancient history" is not to be confused with "classical antiquity". The term classical antiquity is often used to refer to Western history in the Ancient Mediterranean from the beginning of recorded Greek history in 776 BC (first Olympiad). This roughly coincides with the traditional date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome, and the beginning of the Archaic period in Ancient Greece.

The academic term "history" is fundamentally the study of the past, and can be either scientific (archaeology, with the examination of physical evidence) or humanistic (the study of history through texts, poetry, and linguistics).

Although the ending date of ancient history is disputed, some Western scholars use the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD (the most used), the closure of the Platonic Academy in 529 AD, the death of the emperor Justinian I in 565 AD, the coming of Islam, or the rise of Charlemagne as the end of ancient and Classical European history. Outside of Europe, there have been difficulties with the 450–500 time frame for the transition from ancient to post-classical times.

During the time period of ancient history (starting roughly from 3000 BC), the world population was already exponentially increasing due to the Neolithic Revolution, which was in full progress. According to HYDE estimates from the Netherlands, world population increased exponentially in this period. In 10,000 BC in prehistory, the world population had stood at 2 million, rising to 45 million by 3,000 BC. By the rise of the Iron Age in 1,000 BC, the population had risen to 72 million. By the end of the period in 500 AD, the world population is thought to have stood at 209 million. In 3,500 years, the world population increased by 100 times.

History of the Ancient World is a bare-bones introduction to the Ancient Period from around 4000 BCE until just after the Fall of Rome, around 500 CE. The focus is global, instead of only the Mediterranean region.

Other focuses:
Ancient Mesopotamia, Persian empires, Ancient Egypt, African civilizations, East and South Asia, Ancient Americas, Classical Antiquity (Ancient Greece and Rome), and European barbarian tribes.

Post-classical history, as used in global history, generally runs from about 500 CE to 1500 CE (roughly corresponding to the European Middle Ages). The period is characterized by the expansion of civilizations geographically and development of trade networks between civilizations.

In Asia, the spread of Islam created a new empire and Islamic Golden Age with trade among the Asian, African and European continents, and advances in science in the medieval Islamic world. East Asia experienced the full establishment of power of Imperial China, which established several prosperous dynasties influencing Korea, Vietnam, and Japan. Religions such as Buddhism and Neo-Confucianism spread in the region. Gunpowder was developed in China during the post-classical era. The Mongol Empire connected Europe and Asia, creating safe trade and stability between the two regions. In total the population of the world doubled in the time period from approximately 210 million in 500 AD to 461 million in 1500 AD. Population generally grew steadily throughout the period but endured some incidental declines in events including the Plague of Justinian, the Mongol Invasions, and the Black Death.

This period is also called the medieval era, post-antiquity era, post-ancient era, or pre-modern era.

This documentary about the Middle Ages is a bare-bones introduction to the Postclassical Period from around the year 500 until around 1500. The focus is global, instead of only Europe. It is 2nd in our 4-part TIME PERIOD series

Main focuses:
West African Kingdoms, Middle Ages, Rise of Islam, Delhi Sultanate, Khmer Empire, Sui, Tang, and Song Dynasties, Japanese Shogunates, Crusades, Black Death, Mongol Empire, Mississippians, Mayans and Aztecs, Incans, Melanesians and Polynesians, Fall of Constantinople.

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era. Although the chronological limits of this period are open to debate, the timeframe spans the period after the late post-classical or Middle Ages (c. 1400–1500) through the beginning of the Age of Revolutions (c. 1800). It is variously demarcated by historians as beginning with the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the Renaissance period in Europe and Timurid Central Asia, the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, the end of the Crusades, the Age of Discovery (especially the voyages of Christopher Columbus beginning in 1492 but also Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India in 1498), and ending around the French Revolution in 1789, or Napoleon's rise to power.

Early modern trends in various regions of the world represented a shift away from medieval modes of organization, politically and economically. Feudalism declined in Europe, and Christians and Christendom saw the end of the Crusades and of religious unity under the Roman Catholic Church. The old order was destabilized by the Protestant Reformation, which caused a backlash that expanded the Inquisition and sparked the disastrous European Wars of Religion, which included the especially bloody Thirty Years' War and ended with the establishment of the modern international system in the Peace of Westphalia. Along with the European colonization of the Americas, this period also contained the Commercial Revolution and the Golden Age of Piracy.

This documentary about the Early Modern Period is a bare-bones introduction to the world after the Middle Ages, from around the year 1500 until around 1800. The focus is global, instead of only Europe. It is 3rd in our 4-part TIME PERIOD series

Main focuses:
Ming dynasty, Qing dynasty, Japanese unification, Invasion of Korea, Mughals and Marathas, Malacca Sultanate, Durrani Empire, Ottoman expansion, Thirty Years' War, Seven Year's War, War of Spanish Succession, Renaissance, Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment, Protestant Reformation, Colonization of the Americas, French Revolution.

In many periodizations of human history, the late modern period followed the early modern period. It began approximately in the mid-18th century and depending on the author either ended with the beginning of contemporary history after World War II, or includes that period up to the present day. Notable historical milestones included the American Revolution, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and the Russian Revolution. It took all of human history up to 1804 for the world's population to reach 1 billion; the next billion came just over a century later, in 1927.

This documentary about the Late Modern Period is a bare-bones introduction to the Time Period from around the year 1800 until around the present. The focus is global, instead of only Europe.

Industrial Revolution, Napoleonic Wars, Revolutions of 1848, German and Italian Unification, World War I and World War II, Chinese Civil War, Russian Revolution, Russian Civil War, Cold War, Scramble for Africa, American Civil War, Space Race, Gilded Age, the Great Depression, and other topics!

General Knowledge World Ancient, Medieval, Modern - World History Timeline
The following table illustrates the major events along with respective timeline −

Time Events
10000 BCE Middle East people domesticated goats and dogs.
9500 BCE Settled farming began.
6000 BCE Copper was discovered.
5000 BCE Sumerian civilization evolved between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. Later it became popular as Mesopotamia (present day Iraq).
5000 BCE First calendar of 365 days, 12 months, and 30 days invented.
3500 BCE Bronze was discovered in Egypt.
3100 BCE First dynasty of Egypt.
3000 BCE Early writing.
2600 BCE Indus Valley civilization.
2560 BCE Great Pyramid of Giza.
2000 – 1200 BCE Iron Age.
1800 BCE Alphabetic writing appeared.
1700 BCE End of Indus Valley Civilization.
1400 BCE Water clock is invented in Egypt.
1027 BCE In China, Chou dynasty began.
850 BCE Homer had written the epic “Iliad and Odyssey”.
776 BCE Olympic Games first recorded.
753 BCE City of Rome was established by Romulus.
653 BCE Rise of Persian Empire.
600 BCE Sixteen Maha Janapadas emerged in India.
586 BCE The First Temple in Jerusalem (Solomon's Temple) was destroyed by the Babylonians.
550 BCE Pythagoras (Greek scholar) studied the movements of celestial bodies and mathematics.
509 BCE Founding of Roman Republic after exclusion of the last Roman King.
508 BCE Democracy introduced at Athens.
500 BCE Panini standardized the Sanskrit grammar and its morphology in the text Ashtadhyayi.
500 BCE Pingala learned the uses of zero and binary numeral system.
499 BCE Greco-Persian Wars.
490 BCE Battle of Marathon.
338 BCE In the Battle of Chaeronea, the king Philip II, defeated the combined forces of the Greek city-states Athens and Thebes.
337 BCE Philip II had created a strong and unified nation in Macedonia. He hired Aristotle (the Philosopher) to tutor his son, Alexander.
336 BCE Philip II was assassinated and Alexander became king.
331 BCE In the Battle of Gaugamela, Alexander the Great defeated Darius III of Persia.
326 BCE In the Battle of the Hydaspes River, Alexander the Great defeated Indian king Porus
323 BCE Death of Alexander at Babylon
300 BCE The Great Pyramid of Cholula constructed
221 BCE Qin Shi Huang unified China and the beginning of Imperial rule (in China)
221 BCE The Qin Dynasty began the construction of the Great Wall of China
206 BCE After the death of Qin Shi Huang, Han Dynasty established in China
200 BCE Paper is invented in China
124 BCE China's Imperial University was established
111 BCE First Chinese domination of Việtnam as the Nanyue Kingdom
4 BCE Birth of Jesus Christ (Widely accepted date)
Common Era (CE)
29 CE Jesus Christ crucified
70 CE The armies of Titus destructed Jerusalem
78 CE Origin of Saka Era in India
79 CE Mount Vesuvius erupted and destructed Pompeii and other towns (in Italy)
220 CE After the fall of Han Dynasty, three Kingdoms period begins in China
378 CE The Germanic tribes defeated Roman army in the battle of Adrianople
570 CE Prophet Mohammed (the founder of Muslim religion) born
581 CE Sui Dynasty came in China
613 CE Muhammad had commenced preaching publicly in his hometown, Mecca
622 CE Muhammad Migrated from Mecca to Medina
623 CE Muhammad abandoned Saturday as the Sabbath and made Friday as special day of the week
632 CE Muhammad died
660 CE The Quran, the holy book, was published for the first time
793 CE Scandinavians approached the island of Lindisfarne, Scotland by boat and they attacked monks and robbed their monastery. It is the first recorded raid by the Vikings
800 CE Gunpowder was invented
1050 CE An ancient tool of navigation namely The astrolabe” was first used in Europe
1077 CE Construction of the London Tower began
1117 CE The University of Oxford is established
1150 CE The University of Paris is established
1199 CE Europeans first used compasses
1209 CE The University of Cambridge is established
1215 CE John of England sealed the “Magna Carta”
1298 CE Marco Polo published his itinerary of China, along with Rustichello da Pisa.
1299 CE Osman I established the Ottoman Empire
1347 CE The Black Death withered Europe for the first (of many times). In the first year, an estimated 20 to 40% of the population was thought to have perished.
1389 CE Battle of Kosovo (in Serbia)
1397 CE The Medici bank was established in Florence
1461 CE King Loius XI of France started postal service
1492 CE Christopher Columbus discovered a route going to the New World (i.e. Caribbean Islands and America)
1498 CE Vasco da Gama arrived India
1503 CE Leonardo da Vinci started making the painting of Mona Lisa; however, completed after three years
1506 CE Christopher Columbus died in Valladolid, Spain
1632 CE The city of Boston is founded
1636 CE Harvard University is established in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
1652 CE Dutch East India Company founded the city Cape Town in South Africa
1666 CE The Great Fire of London
1683 CE China conquered the Kingdom of Tungning and annexes Taiwan
1687 CE Isaac Newton published “Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica”
1694 CE The Bank of England is established
1697 CE The earliest known first-class cricket match had taken place in Sussex
1710 CE The world's first copyright legislation, Britain's Statute of Anne (also known as Copyright Act 1709), took effect
1724 CE Japan began successful forest management reform and subsequently timber cutting was reduced
1765 CE In France, a twenty-eight volume of encyclopedia was completed
1776 CE In USA, second Continental Congress meeting and declaration of independence July 4)
1781 CE The Spanish settlers founded the city of Los Angeles
1783 CE In USA, King George declared the thirteen colonies as "free and independent”
1783 CE In USA, based on the state's 1780 constitution, the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts ruled slavery illegal
1785 CE Napoleon Bonaparte became a lieutenant in the French artillery
1787 CE The United States Constitution is written in Philadelphia and submitted to the states for ratification
1787 CE The slaves freed from London established Freetown (West Africa) i.e. present-day Sierra Leone
1795 CE The first graphite pencils were used
1789–1799 CE French Revolution
1797 CE Napoleon's invasion and partition of the Republic of Venice ended over 1,000 years of independence of the Serene Republic
1801 CE Napoleon (of France) defeated Austria
1804 CE Haiti attained its independence from France and became the first black republic
1805 CE In Milan (Italy), Napoleon was crowned as the King of Italy
1805 CE In the Battle of Austerlitz, Napoleon decisively defeated an Austrian-Russian army
1814 CE Napoleon abdicated and was exiled to Elba.
1815 CE Napoleon escaped; however, he was finally defeated at the Battle of Waterloo (in June) and exiled to Saint Helena Island
1820 CE Discovery of Antarctica
1821 CE Napoleon Bonaparte died (at Saint Helena Island, where he was exiled)
1823 CE Monroe Doctrine was declared by US President James Monroe
1825 CE The two railway station at Stockton and Darlington (the first public railway in the world) was opened
1833 CE Slavery Abolition Act banned slavery throughout the British Empire
1835 CE Vaccination became mandatory in Britain
1838 CE Charles Darwin developed the theory of evolutionary selection and specialization
1840 CE New Zealand is established, as the Treaty of Waitangi is signed between the Māori and British
1841 CE Richard Owen, first time, used the word "dinosaur"
1842 CE First time Anaesthesia was used
1845-49 CE The Irish Potato Famine that lead to the Irish diaspora
1848-58 CE California Gold Rush
1848 CE Karl Marx wrote Communist Manifesto
1849 CE Roman Republic's constitutional law became the first to abolish capital punishment
1854 CE Crimean War (fought between Russia and Turkey)
1856 CE World's first oil refinery founded in Romania
1859-69 CE Suez Canal constructed
1859 CE The first successful oil well was drilled in northern Pennsylvania (USA)
1859 CE John Tyndall, the British scientist, described the concept that the carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor trapping heat in the atmosphere. Further, he suggested that the changing in the concentration of gases could bring climate change
1861 CE Russia abolished serfdom
1861-65 CE American Civil War, took place between the Union and seceding Confederacy
1862 CE The first paper money was issued in the United States
1865 CE President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln was assassinated
1868 CE Michael Barrett was the last person to be publicly hanged in England
1869 CE Dmitri Mendeleev created Periodic table
1869 CE The Suez Canal route opened that linking the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea
1871 CE Royal Albert Hall opened in London
1872 CE The first National Park i.e. Yellowstone National Park, is established
1886 CE Burma was presented to Queen Victoria as a birthday gift
1886 CE Karl Benz sold the first commercial automobile
1887 CE Sir Arthur Conan Doyle published his first Sherlock Holmes story, ‘A Study in Scarlet’
1889 CE Eiffel Tower is inaugurated in Paris
1891 CE The German government initiated the first public old-age pension scheme
1892 CE For the first time, Fingerprinting was officially adopted.
1893 CE New Zealand became the first country to enact women's suffrage
1894 CE First commercial film was released by Jean Aimé Le Roy
1896 CE Olympic Games revived in Athens, Greece
1898 CE Britain obtained a 99-year lease of Hong Kong from China
1900 CE Hawaii became an official USA territory
1901 CE In Stockholm (Sweden), the first Nobel Prize ceremony was held
1901 CE Theodore Roosevelt become the youngest President of the United States
1904 CE Russian Japanese War
1905 CE Albert Einstein's formulation of relativity
1908 CE First commercial radio transmissions
1911 CE Xinhai Revolution in China overthrows the Qing Dynasty
1912 CE End of the Chinese Empire and Republic of China established
1912 CE First Balkan War began
1912 CE Woodrow Wilson elected as the 28th President of the United States
1913 CE Second Balkan War and Treaty of Bucharest too place
1914 CE Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo that triggered the World War I
1914 CE Panama Canal opened
1915 CE First use of poison gas at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle and Second Battle of Ypres
1916 CE The implementation of daylight saving time system
1917 CE Russian Revolution ended the Russian Empire
1917 CE The United States joined the Allies (countries) for the last 17 months of World War I
1918 CE End of World War I
1918 CE Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus declared their independence from Russia.
1919 CE Treaty of Versailles redrew European borders.
1919 CE League of Nations founded in Paris.
1920 CE Greece restores its monarchy after a referendum.
1920 CE International Court of Justice founded at Hague in the Netherlands.
1921 CE Adolf Hitler became Führer (guide, leader) of the Nazi Party.
1922 CE The Turkish Grand National Assembly abolished Ottoman Sultanate.
1923 CE Time Magazine was published first time
1923 CE Turkish War of Independence ended and Kemal Atatürk became the first President of the newly established Republic of Turkey. Capital was moved from Istanbul to Ankara
1924 CE Death of Vladimir Lenin (of Russia); rise of Stalin.
1924 CE The Caliphate was abolished by Kemal Atatürk.
1924 CE The US Federal Bureau of Investigation established under J Edgar Hoover.
1925 CE Benito Mussolini gains dictatorial powers in Italy and adopted the title of ‘Duce’.
1925 CE Mein Kampf (an autobiography of the National Socialist leader Adolf Hitler) was published.
1927 CE Joseph Stalin became leader of the Soviet Union.
1927 CE The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland officially became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
1927 CE The BBC was granted a Royal Charter in the United Kingdom.
1928 CE Mickey Mouse was created at the Walt Disney Studio.
1929 CE Wall Street crash of 1929 and the beginning of the Great Depression
1929 CE Vatican City has given the status of a sovereign State.
1929 CE Saint Valentine's Day Massacre.
1930 CE First FIFA World Cup hosted
1931 CE Construction of the Empire State Building
1931 CE Statute of Westminster created the British Commonwealth of Nations
1931 CE Japan invaded Manchuria (China) and occupied it until the end of World War II
1932 CE Franklin D Roosevelt is elected President of the United States
1932 CE The Nazi party became the largest single party in the German parliament
1933 CE Adolf Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany
1935 CE Persia became Iran
1937 CE Japanese invaded China
1937 CE The Irish Republican Army attempted to assassinate King George VI of the UK
1938 CE Munich agreement that handed over Czechoslovakia to Nazi Germany
1939 CE Nazi invasion of Poland that triggered the beginning of World War II
1940 CE Nazis invaded France, the Netherlands, Denmark and Norway
1940 CE Soviet Union annexes the Baltic states
1940 CE Winston Churchill became the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
1941 CE Attack on Pearl Harbor that forced the USA to join World War II
1941 CE Hitler invaded the Soviet Union
1943 CE Battle of Stalingrad ended with over two million casualties and the retreat of the German Army
1943 CE Tehran Conference participated by Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin; all agreed to launch Operation Overlord.
1943 CE Green Revolution began.
1944 CE Chechen insurgency ended with deportation of the entire Chechen population.
1944 CE First operational electronic computer, Colossus, introduced
1944 CE D Day (Military terms associated with Invasion of Normandy)
1945 CE Battle of Berlin
1945 CE Yalta Conference
1945 CE Atomic bombing on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Japan)
1945 CE End of World War II in Europe. The Holocaust ends after (about) 12 million deaths
1945 CE Death of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Adolf Hitler, and Benito Mussolini
1945 CE Potsdam Conference (World War II) divided Europe into Western and Soviet blocs
1945 CE United Nations founded
1946 CE First images had been taken of the Earth from space
1948 CE Beginning of apartheid in South Africa
1948 CE Division of North and South Korea
1949 CE Creation of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
1949 CE Germany partitioned as the Soviet socialist German Democratic Republic and the NATO-backed Federal Republic of Germany
1949 CE Establishment of the People's Republic of China under the leadership of Mao Zedong
1951 CE Treaty of San Francisco terminated the Occupation of Japan and formally concluded hostilities between Japan and the US
1952 CE Egyptian Revolution under Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrew King Farouk and terminated British occupation
1953 CE Stalin died
1954 CE First time, the Soviet Union generated the electricity by nuclear power
1955 CE Warsaw Pact signed
1957 CE Beginning of the Space Age with the launch of Sputnik I
1958 CE NASA, the US Federal Aviation Authority and Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) established
1959 CE Cuban Revolution
1962 CE Cuban missile crisis
1962 CE Sino-Indian War
1963 CE Assassination of John F Kennedy
1965 CE Deaths of Winston Churchill
1968 CE Martin Luther King, Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy assassinated while the Poor People's Campaign
1969 CE Muammar Gaddafi overthrew King Idris of Libya in a Coup d'état and established the Libyan Arab Republic
1973 CE First space station, Skylab, was launched
1975 CE First Cricket World Cup hosted
1976 CE First outbreak of the Ebola virus
1978 CE Birth of the first test-tube baby
1979 CE Margaret Thatcher became the Prime Minister of the UK
1985 CE Mikhail Gorbachev became Premier of the Soviet Union
1985 CE First use of DNA fingerprinting
1986 CE Chernobyl disasters
1989 CE Fall of the Berlin Wall
1990 CE Sir Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web (WWW)
1990 CE Gulf War began
1990 CE After 27 years of imprisonment, Nelson Mandela released
1991 CE Gulf War ended after US withdrawal and failed uprising
1991 CE Dissolution of the Soviet Union and subsequent independence of 15 former Soviet republics
1991 CE Boris Yeltsin became the first President of the Russian Federation
1991 CE The first Website has been put online and made available to the public
1992 CE Maastricht Treaty created the European Union
1993 CE Velvet divorce between Czech Republic and Slovakia
1994 CE End of apartheid in South Africa and subsequent election of Nelson Mandela the great leader
1994 CE Opening of the Channel Tunnel
1995 CE Establishment of the World Trade Organization
1997 CE Transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong from UK to China
1997 CE Diana, Princess of Wales, was killed in a car accident in Paris, France
1998 CE Google is founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin
1999 CE Euro is introduced
2001 CE Terrorists destroyed the World Trade Center in New York City and damaged the Pentagon in Washington, DC
2001 CE Wikipedia founded.
2003 CE Iraq War began that triggered worldwide protests.
2003 CE The space shuttle, Columbia, collapsed (while landing) nearby Texas (USA); all the seven astronauts (including Indian astronaut Kalpana Chawla) died in the accident.
2005 CE Angela Merkel became Germany's first woman Chancellor.
2006 CE Ellen Johnson Sirleaf became the President of Liberia. She was the first elected female head of state in Africa.
2006 CE Execution of Saddam Hussein.
2008 CE Stock markets plunge across the world.
2008 CE Monarchy system terminated in Nepal.
2009 CE The world's tallest skyscraper, Burj Khalifa (in Dubai), has been built.
2010 The largest oil spill in US history occurred in the Gulf of Mexico.
2011 CE Osama bin Laden, Muammar Gaddafi, and Kim Jong-Il were killed.
2011 CE Iraq War ended.
2013 CE Deaths of Hugo Chávez, Nelson Mandela, and Margaret Thatcher.
2015 CE United States and Cuba resumed diplomatic relations.

An Evolutionary Timeline of Homo Sapiens Scientists share the findings that helped them pinpoint key moments in the rise of our species The long evolutionary journey that created modern humans began with a single step—or more accurately—with the ability to walk on two legs. One of our earliest-known ancestors, Sahelanthropus, began the slow transition from ape-like movement some six million years ago, but Homo sapiens wouldn’t show up for more than five million years. During that long interim, a menagerie of different human species lived, evolved and died out, intermingling and sometimes interbreeding along the way. As time went on, their bodies changed, as did their brains and their ability to think, as seen in their tools and technologies.

To understand how Homo sapiens eventually evolved from these older lineages of hominins, the group including modern humans and our closest extinct relatives and ancestors, scientists are unearthing ancient bones and stone tools, digging into our genes and recreating the changing environments that helped shape our ancestors’ world and guide their evolution.

These lines of evidence increasingly indicate that H. sapiens originated in Africa, although not necessarily in a single time and place. Instead it seems diverse groups of human ancestors lived in habitable regions around Africa, evolving physically and culturally in relative isolation, until climate driven changes to African landscapes spurred them to intermittently mix and swap everything from genes to tool techniques. Eventually, this process gave rise to the unique genetic makeup of modern humans.

“East Africa was a setting in foment—one conducive to migrations across Africa during the period when Homo sapiens arose,” says Rick Potts, director of the Smithsonian’s Human Origins Program. “It seems to have been an ideal setting for the mixing of genes from migrating populations widely spread across the continent. The implication is that the human genome arose in Africa. Everyone is African, and yet not from any one part of Africa.”

New discoveries are always adding key waypoints to the chart of our human journey. This timeline of Homo sapiens features some of the best evidence documenting how we evolved.

550,000 to 750,000 Years Ago: The Beginning of the Homo sapiens Lineage

Homo heidelbergensis

A facial reconstruction of Homo heidelbergensis, a popular candidate as a common ancestor for modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans John


Genes, rather than fossils, can help us chart the migrations, movements and evolution of our own species—and those we descended from or interbred with over the ages.

The oldest-recovered DNA of an early human relative comes from Sima de los Huesos, the “Pit of Bones.” At the bottom of a cave in Spain’s Atapuerca Mountains scientists found thousands of teeth and bones from 28 different individuals who somehow ended up collected en masse. In 2016, scientists painstakingly teased out the partial genome from these 430,000-year-old remains to reveal that the humans in the pit are the oldest known Neanderthals, our very successful and most familiar close relatives. Scientists used the molecular clock to estimate how long it took to accumulate the differences between this oldest Neanderthal genome and that of modern humans, and the researchers suggest that a common ancestor lived sometime between 550,000 and 750,000 years ago.

Pinpoint dating isn't the strength of genetic analyses, as the 200,000-year margin of error shows. “In general, estimating ages with genetics is imprecise,” says Joshua Akey, who studies evolution of the human genome at Princeton University. “Genetics is really good at telling us qualitative things about the order of events, and relative time frames.” Before genetics, these divergence dates were estimated by the oldest fossils of various lineages scientists found. In the case of H. sapiens, known remains only date back some 300,000 years, so gene studies have located the divergence far more accurately on our evolutionary timeline than bones alone ever could.

Though our genes clearly show that modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans—a mysterious hominin species that left behind substantial traces in our DNA but, so far, only a handful of tooth and bone remains—do share a common ancestor, it’s not apparent who it was. Homo heidelbergensis, a species that existed from 200,000 to 700,000 years ago, is a popular candidate. It appears that the African family tree of this species leads to Homo sapiens while a European branch leads to Homo neanderthalensis and the Denisovans.

More ancient DNA could help provide a clearer picture, but finding it is no sure bet. Unfortunately, the cold, dry and stable conditions best for long-term preservation aren’t common in Africa, and few ancient African human genomes have been sequenced that are older than 10,000 years.

“We currently have no ancient DNA from Africa that even comes near the timeframes of our evolution—a process that is likely to have largely taken place between 800,000 and 300,000 years ago,” says Eleanor Scerri, an archaeological scientist at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Germany.

300,000 Years Ago: Fossils Found of Oldest Homo sapiens

Homo Sapiens Skull Reconstruction

Two views of a composite reconstruction of the earliest known Homo sapiens fossils from Jebel Irhoud Philipp Gunz, MPI EVA Leipzig via CC-BY-SA 2.0
As the physical remains of actual ancient people, fossils tell us most about what they were like in life. But bones or teeth are still subject to a significant amount of interpretation. While human remains can survive after hundreds of thousands of years, scientists can’t always make sense of the wide range of morphological features they see to definitively classify the remains as Homo sapiens, or as different species of human relatives.

Fossils often boast a mixture of modern and primitive features, and those don’t evolve uniformly toward our modern anatomy. Instead, certain features seem to change in different places and times, suggesting separate clusters of anatomical evolution would have produced quite different looking people.

No scientists suggest that Homo sapiens first lived in what’s now Morocco, because so much early evidence for our species has been found in both South Africa and East Africa. But fragments of 300,000-year-old skulls, jaws, teeth and other fossils found at Jebel Irhoud, a rich site also home to advanced stone tools, are the oldest Homo sapiens remains yet found.

The remains of five individuals at Jebel Irhoud exhibit traits of a face that looks compellingly modern, mixed with other traits like an elongated brain case reminiscent of more archaic humans. The remains’ presence in the northwestern corner of Africa isn’t evidence of our origin point, but rather of how widely spread humans were across Africa even at this early date.

Other very old fossils often classified as early Homo sapiens come from Florisbad, South Africa (around 260,000 years old), and the Kibish Formation along Ethiopia’s Omo River (around 195,000 years old).

The 160,000-year-old skulls of two adults and a child at Herto, Ethiopia, were classified as the subspecies Homo sapiens idaltu because of slight morphological differences including larger size. But they are otherwise so similar to modern humans that some argue they aren’t a subspecies at all. A skull discovered at Ngaloba, Tanzania, also considered Homo sapiens, represents a 120,000-year-old individual with a mix of archaic traits and more modern aspects like smaller facial features and a further reduced brow.

Debate over the definition of which fossil remains represent modern humans, given these disparities, is common among experts. So much so that some seek to simplify the characterization by considering them part of a single, diverse group.

“The fact of the matter is that all fossils before about 40,000 to 100,000 years ago contain different combinations of so called archaic and modern features. It’s therefore impossible to pick and choose which of the older fossils are members of our lineage or evolutionary dead ends,” Scerri suggests. “The best model is currently one in which they are all early Homo sapiens, as their material culture also indicates.”

As Scerri references, African material culture shows a widespread shift some 300,000 years ago from clunky, handheld stone tools to the more refined blades and projectile points known as Middle Stone Age toolkits.

So when did fossils finally first show fully modern humans with all representative features? It’s not an easy answer. One skull (but only one of several) from Omo Kibish looks much like a modern human at 195,000 years old, while another found in Nigeria’s Iwo Eleru cave, appears very archaic, but is only 13,000 years old. These discrepancies illustrate that the process wasn’t linear, reaching some single point after which all people were modern humans.

300,000 Years Ago: Artifacts Show a Revolution in Tools

Stone Tools

The two objects on the right are pigments used between 320,000 and 500,000 years ago in East Africa. All other objects are stone tools used during the same time period in the same area. Human Origins Program, NMNH, Smithsonian

Our ancestors used stone tools as long as 3.3 million years ago and by 1.75 million years ago they’d adopted the Acheulean culture, a suite of chunky handaxes and other cutting implements that remained in vogue for nearly 1.5 million years. As recently as 400,000 years ago, thrusting spears used during the hunt of large prey in what is now Germany were state of the art. But they could only be used up close, an obvious and sometimes dangerous limitation.

Even as they acquired the more modern anatomy seen in living humans, the ways our ancestors lived, and the tools they created, changed as well.

Humans took a leap in tool tech with the Middle Stone Age some 300,000 years ago by making those finely crafted tools with flaked points and attaching them to handles and spear shafts to greatly improve hunting prowess. Projectile points like those Potts and colleagues dated to 298,000 to 320,000 years old in southern Kenya were an innovation that suddenly made it possible to kill all manner of elusive or dangerous prey. “It ultimately changed how these earliest sapiens interacted with their ecosystems, and with other people,” says Potts.

Scrapers and awls, which could be used to work animal hides for clothing and to shave wood and other materials, appeared around this time. By at least 90,000 years ago barbed points made of bone—like those discovered at Katanda, Democratic Republic of the Congo—were used to spearfish

As with fossils, tool advancements appear in different places and times, suggesting that distinct groups of people evolved, and possibly later shared, these tool technologies. Those groups may include other humans who are not part of our own lineage.

Last year a collection including sophisticated stone blades was discovered near Chennai, India, and dated to at least 250,000 years ago. The presence of this toolkit in India so soon after modern humans appeared in Africa suggests that other species may have also invented them independently—or that some modern humans spread the technology by leaving Africa earlier than most current thinking suggests.

100,000 to 210,000 Years Ago: Fossils Show Homo sapiens Lived Outside of Africa

Skull From Qafzeh

A skull found in Qafzeh, from the collection at the American Museum of Natural History Wapondaponda via Wikipedia under CC BY-SA 3.0
Many genetic analyses tracing our roots back to Africa make it clear that Homo sapiens originated on that continent. But it appears that we had a tendency to wander from a much earlier era than scientists had previously suspected.

A jawbone found inside a collapsed cave on the slopes of Mount Carmel, Israel, reveals that modern humans dwelt there, alongside the Mediterranean, some 177,000 to 194,000 years ago. Not only are the jaw and teeth from Misliya Cave unambiguously similar to those seen in modern humans, they were found with sophisticated handaxes and flint tools.

Other finds in the region, including multiple individuals at Qafzeh, Israel, are dated later. They range from 100,000 to 130,000 years ago, suggesting a long presence for humans in the region. At Qafzeh, human remains were found with pieces of red ocher and ocher-stained tools in a site that has been interpreted as the oldest intentional human burial.

Among the limestone cave systems of southern China, more evidence has turned up from between 80,000 and 120,000 years ago. A 100,000-year-old jawbone, complete with a pair of teeth, from Zhirendong retains some archaic traits like a less prominent chin, but otherwise appears so modern that it may represent Homo sapiens. A cave at Daoxian yielded a surprising array of ancient teeth, barely distinguishable from our own, which suggest that Homo sapiens groups were already living very far from Africa from 80,000 to 120,000 years ago.

Even earlier migrations are possible; some believe evidence exists of humans reaching Europe as long as 210,000 years ago. While most early human finds spark some scholarly debate, few reach the level of the Apidima skull fragment, in southern Greece, which may be more than 200,000 years old and might possibly represent the earliest modern human fossil discovered outside of Africa. The site is steeped in controversy, however, with some scholars believing that the badly preserved remains look less those of our own species and more like Neanderthals, whose remains are found just a few feet away in the same cave. Others question the accuracy of the dating analysis undertaken at the site, which is tricky because the fossils have long since fallen out of the geological layers in which they were deposited.

While various groups of humans lived outside of Africa during this era, ultimately, they aren’t part of our own evolutionary story. Genetics can reveal which groups of people were our distant ancestors and which had descendants who eventually died out.

“Of course, there could be multiple out of Africa dispersals,” says Akey. “The question is whether they contributed ancestry to present day individuals and we can say pretty definitely now that they did not.”

50,000 to 60,000 Years Ago: Genes and Climate Reconstructions Show a Migration Out of Africa

Arabian Peninsula

A digital rendering of a satellite view of the Arabian Peninsula, where humans are believed to have migrated from Africa roughly 55,000 years ago.

All living non-Africans, from Europeans to Australia’s aboriginal people, can trace most of their ancestry to humans who were part of a landmark migration out of Africa beginning some 50,000 to 60,000 years ago, according to numerous genetic studies published in recent years. Reconstructions of climate suggest that lower sea levels created several advantageous periods for humans to leave Africa for the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East, including one about 55,000 years ago.

“Just by looking at DNA from present day individuals we’ve been able to infer a pretty good outline of human history,” Akey says. “A group dispersed out of Africa maybe 50 to 60 thousand years ago, and then that group traveled around the world and eventually made it to all habitable places of the world.”

While earlier African emigres to the Middle East or China may have interbred with some of the more archaic hominids still living at that time, their lineage appears to have faded out or been overwhelmed by the later migration.

15,000 to 40,000 Years Ago: Genetics and Fossils Show Homo sapiens Became the Only Surviving Human Species

Homo floresiensis

A facial reconstruction of Homo floresiensis, a diminutive early human that may have lived until 50,000 years ago John Gurche

For most of our history on this planet, Homo sapiens have not been the only humans. We coexisted, and as our genes make clear frequently interbred with various hominin species, including some we haven’t yet identified. But they dropped off, one by one, leaving our own species to represent all humanity. On an evolutionary timescale, some of these species vanished only recently.

On the Indonesian island of Flores, fossils evidence a curious and diminutive early human species nicknamed “hobbit.” Homo floresiensis appear to have been living until perhaps 50,000 years ago, but what happened to them is a mystery. They don’t appear to have any close relation to modern humans including the Rampasasa pygmy group, which lives in the same region today.

Neanderthals once stretched across Eurasia from Portugal and the British Isles to Siberia. As Homo sapiens became more prevalent across these areas the Neanderthals faded in their turn, being generally consigned to history by some 40,000 years ago. Some evidence suggests that a few die-hards might have held on in enclaves, like Gibraltar, until perhaps 29,000 years ago. Even today traces of them remain because modern humans carry Neanderthal DNA in their genome.

Our more mysterious cousins, the Denisovans, left behind so few identifiable fossils that scientists aren’t exactly sure what they looked like, or if they might have been more than one species. A recent study of human genomes in Papua New Guinea suggests that humans may have lived with and interbred with Denisovans there as recently as 15,000 years ago, though the claims are controversial. Their genetic legacy is more certain. Many living Asian people inherited perhaps 3 to 5 percent of their DNA from the Denisovans.

Despite the bits of genetic ancestry they contributed to living people, all of our close relatives eventually died out, leaving Homo sapiens as the only human species. Their extinctions add one more intriguing, perhaps unanswerable question to the story of our evolution—why were we the only humans to survive?

Thanks From New World Order Year Zero!

Buildings and cities are made to grow old, to outlast people, and to be a testament to these cultural histories. They’re a yardstick for a culture’s ability to endure. When they’re not given the chance to do this, the contradiction can break something loose, and send people scavenging for cultural memory that feels ancient enough to anchor them in an uncertain now.

If anything, the world is consistent; no one in any country has a clue how to rebuild the castles found in their own countries.

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